Dec 19, 2012

Rawatan Buasir Tanpa Bedah



Ramai yang mengalami ketidakselesaan akibat buasir. Penyakit ini telah saya cerita dengan agak panjang di penulisan saya sebelum ini.

(Lihat Pos oleh Dr Zubaidi)

Namun apabila saya membayangkan perkataan “bedah”, ramai yang menulis email kepada saya semula dan bertanyakan rawatan yang boleh didapati selain dari pembedahan.

“Saya bukannya tidak mahu bedah, tapi menurut rakan saya yang mengalami masalah yang sama dan telah dibedah, luka pembedahan di dubur sukar untuk sembuh…”

Saya tersenyum mendengar alasan yang diberikan.

Sudah semestinya luka di bahagian dubur agak sukar untuk sembuh kerana di situ terdapat banyak kuman dan lendiran. Tidak mungkin luka di kawasan dubur akan kering dalam masa yang pendek.

Akibat luka yang lambat sembuh ini menyebabkan pesakit selalu mengalami trauma ketika mahu membuang air besar kerana apabila najis keluar dari lubang dubur itu, selalunya pesakit akan merasa sakit. Oleh itu ada pesakit rela untuk tidak makan kerana bimbang akan menyebabkan terkumpulnya banyak najis di usus besar.

Walaubagaimanapun, pembedahan selalunya harus dilakukan kepada buasir yang besar dan tidak dapat lagi dirawat dengan rawatan ubat-ubatan. Tanpa pembedahan kemungkinan buasir bertambah teruk.

“Doktor baru-baru ini saya ternampak klinik pakar buasir yang merawat menggunakan kaedah suntikan. Mengikut pesakit yang telah mendapatkan rawatan di sana, ianya berkesan. Mengapa pihak hospital tidak menyediakan rawatan ini?”

Saya tersenyum sekali lagi. Saya percaya klinik yang dimaksudkan bukanlah klinik yang dikendalikan oleh doktor yang bertauliah.

Klinik-klinik ini biasanya dikendalikan oleh tabib Cina. Malah ada juga pengamal bekam yang merawat buasir. Saya amat hairan bagaimana buasir yang berada di dubur dapat dirawat dengan membuang darah pada punggung dan pinggang. Mungkin mereka mengagak “darah kotor” dari dubur mampu ‘bergerak ke atas’ dan dikeluarkan melalui kulit punggung dan pinggang.

Saya tidak manafikan adakalanya rawatan yang mereka berikan adakalanya berkesan. Itu semua bergantung kepada jenis dan saiz buasir yang yang dialami oleh pesakit.

Terdapat juga beberapa doktor Pengamal Perubatan Am yang melakukan rawatan suntikan di klinik mereka. Asalkan mereka berpengalaman dan terlatih, saya percaya pesakit tentu akan dapat manfaat dari penggunaan menggunakan kaedah rawatan buasir dengan cara suntikan.

Cara rawatan suntikan yang biasa dilakukan ialah sclerotherapy di mana suntikan jarum yang mengandungi pembeku darah (sclerosant) disuntik pada saluran darah yang bengkak (buasir) lalu menyebabkan buasir itu menjadi keras, membentuk parut dan kemudiannya tanggal sendiri.

Suntikan untuk buasir selalunya dilakukan dengan mudah tanpa perlu dimasukkan ke dalam wad. Prosedur ini selalunya dilakukan di bilik doktor dan memakan masa tidak lebih dari dua jam. Buasir yang mempunyai bilangan yang melebihi satu dapat dirawat serentak dengan menggunakan teknik ini.



Oleh itu ramai pesakit yang memilih rawatan ini kerana ianya cepat memberikan kesan. Namun begitu buasir ini boleh berulang semula. Selalunya akan berulang selepas setahun terutama pada pesakit yang mengalami sembelit yang kronik.

Semasa bekerja di Jabatan Pembedahan, saya pernah bertanya kepada Consultant Surgeon soalan yang sama, iaitu ‘mengapakan rawatan suntikan tidak digunakan’.

Doktor di hospital lebih bimbang akan kesan sampingan yang boleh berlaku jika cuai ketika menyuntik sclerosant.

Komplikasi mungkin dialami ialah pembekuan darah pada saluran vena buasir akan pecah menjadi serpihan-serpihan darah beku yang kecil (venous thromboembolism) dan bergerak ke organ-organ tertentu seperti otak, paru-paru dan jantung.

Jika ia bergerak ke otak, boleh menyebabkan stroke. Jika bergerak ke paru-paru dan jantung boleh menyebabkan pesakit mengalami kesukaran bernafas. Serpihan darah beku yang bergerak ke saluran darah di mata pula boleh menyebabkan gangguan penglihatan dan buta.


Kesan sampingan ini biasanya berlaku jika doktor memberikan dos suntikan yang berlebihan untuk merawat buasir yang bersaiz agak besar. Ia juga berlaku jika perawat atau doktor tersilap memberikan suntikan pada saluran arteri (sepatutnya saluran vena).

Kesan sampingan inilah yang menjadi trauma pada doktor yang merawat kerana pesakit boleh meninggal dunia, bukan kerana penyakit buasirnya tetapi kerana rawatan yang diberikan.

(rujuk: Morrison N and Neuhardt D L (2009). “Foam Sclerotherapy: cardiac and cerebral monitoring”. Phlebology 24 (6): 252–259)

Pesakit juga boleh mengalami reaksi anaphalaxis yang menyebabkan pesakit tidak boleh bernafas serta-merta sebaik sahaja suntikan diberikan. Kesan reaksi ini amat cepat dan boleh menyebabkan kematian yang mengejut.

(rujuk: Scurr JR, Fisher RK, Wallace SB (2007). “Anaphylaxis Following Foam Sclerotherapy: A Life Threatening Complication of Non Invasive Treatment For Varicose Veins”. EJVES Extra 13 (6): 87–89)

Oleh itu doktor selalunya berhati-hati ketika menimbangkan pilihan rawatan buasir menggunakan teknik suntikan.

Bagi pesakit yang cuba mengelakkan pembedahan, rawatan secara suntikan adalah pilihan yang agak baik. Namun harus berbincang dengan doktor yang merawat dan meneliti kesan sampingan yang mungkin diterima jika pesakit itu mempunyai penyakit kronik yang lain seperti diabetes, tekanan darah tinggi, asthma atau lainnya.

Wallahu a’lam.



Susunan: Dr Zubaidi Hj Ahmad (141211)

Dec 18, 2012

I-City jadi kebun kelapa sawit



Ni aku quote dari blog entry mychannels.org



I-City, bertukarlah kau jadi kebun kelapa sawit.... 
Aku marah dan aku tak boleh tidur. Aku sampai I-City pukul 9 malam, dan aku pulang pukul 11.30 malam. Selama 2 jam setengah, adalah masa masa yang aku menyirap, aku menggeleng, aku merenung tajam, dam aku luka jiwa raga.
Aku kena main dan aku kena tipu.
Pakcik dan makcik dari kampung juga ditindas, dan ditipu secara professional. Dirompak duit poket mereka secara 'as per term and condition', juga yang paling memilukan..dibunuh harapan dan kegembiraan mereka dengan begitu saja.
Ya. Aku rasakan, aku dikenakan harga yang tidak patut untuk secebis keseronokan keluarga yang tak setara mana. Lagi pedih, bila kumpulan manusia yang ramai berpusu ke situ terdiri dari kumpulan pakcik makcik dari Kokdiang, Gua Musang, Felda Chenor, Padang Melangit dan Mersing. Mereka ini membawa ahli keluarga, anak anak kecil, sanak saudara dan mungkin anak anak jiran yang teringin menumpang bercuti ke kota. Mereka ini, dari riaknya..bukanlah semuanya berpangkat pegawai, jauh sekali memiliki harta berjuta, mereka ini semuanya rakyat marhein, yang bercita nak mengembirakan keluarga dengan membawa mereka berjalan ke sini, ke I-City.
Sebelum aku teruskan, mungkin aku boleh katakan yang i-City ni dibuat untuk pelancongan domestik. I-City pada telahan awal aku adalah tempat rakyat jelata menikmati keseronokan, dengan maksud, kerajaan (samada pusat atau negeri) atau syarikat yang menyelenggara mengenakan caj yang berpatutan dan tidak misleading. Sebaliknya aku salah, pakcik makcik juga salah. i-City rupanya bercita cita besar untuk memebelikan kereta Ferrari spider untuk setiap ahli lembaga pengarahnya.

Mari aku ceritakan celakanya. >> BACA SETERUSNYA 

Dec 12, 2012

Wanita hamil dan BUASIR

Wanita yang hamil adalah wanita yang seharusnya sihat. Mereka bukan pesakit. Kehamilan adalah proses fisiologi yang sihat. Orang tidak pernah hamil dikatakan tidak mempunyai proses fisiologi yang normal. Namun orang yang hamil lebih mudah menderita pelbagai penyakit akibat kehamilannya.

Antara penyakit yang mudah dialami oleh wanita yang hamil ialah buasir. Ia adalah penyakit yang boleh dielakkan jika dari awal, seseorang berhati-hati menjaga kesihatan dirinya. Namun apabila telah ditimpa penyakit, banyaklah bersabar dan berusahalah untuk mendapat rawatan yang sesuai.

Saya mendapat email dari seorang wanita yang hamil dan mengalami penyakit buasir.

“Assalammualaikum, saya berusia 27 tahun, sekarang hamil 25 minggu. pada 19.10.11 saya mengalami BUASIR dan ‘ketumbuhan’ itu masih boleh ditolak masuk dubur, tetapi ia keluar dengan sendirinya. Keesokan paginya (20.10.11) ia menjadi bengkak dan sakit sehingga tak boleh ditolak masuk semula.

Selepas pemeriksaan di klinik, doktor membekalkan saya ubat suppositori. Namun saya masih mengalami sakit yang tidak tertahan sehingga menyukarkan pergerakan.

Pada 25.10.11, saya dirujuk ke hospital kerana sakit tidak berkurangan. Setelah diperiksa pakar bedah, saya didiagnosakan sebagai “trombosed haemorrhoid stage II”. Doktor pakar surgeri cuba memasukkan semula buasir yg bengkak,tetapi tidak berjaya. Saya diberi ubat lactoluse kerana 3 hari tidak buang air besar dan dinasihatkan mengamalkan diet bubur.

Pada 26.10.11,saya membuang air besar 4 kali, najis lembut berwarna hijau dan kelabu dan tiada darah lagi. Sakit pada dubur semakin berkurangan selepas disapu dengan sapuan topikal. Akhirnya dibenarkan keluar dan dibekalkan tablet daflon, beserta liquid parafin. Sakit hilang,

Walaupun tidak lagi sakit, tetapi saya masih berasa pedih sedikit selepas buang air besar. Namun buasir tidak boleh dimasukkan semula.

Doktor, adakah saya perlu rujuk pakar bedah semula kerana buasir masih tidak boleh dimasukkan semula walaupun tidak sakit dan tiada darah. adakah keadaan ini akan berlanjutan sehingga saya melahirkan nanti?

Harap dr dapat menjawab soalan saya,keadaan ini membuatkan saya stress ditambah lagi baru kehilangan arwah bapa akibat barah usus.Sekian,terima kasih”.

Wanita hamil, Klang.



Tidak ada ayat yang dapat melegakan kesakitan fizikal dan emosi yang dihadapi oleh beliau. Namun percayalah bahawa setiap ujian diberikan berbentuk penyakit dan kerisauan akan dibalas dengan kebaikan oleh Allah. Sesungguhnya, setiap manusia diuji dengan pelbagai ujian bagi menguji setakat mana keimanan mereka.

Penyakit buasir atau “hemorrhoids” biasanya dihadapi oleh mereka yang berumur 50 tahun ke atas. Mereka mudah mendapat penyakit ini berbanding dengan orang muda. Tetapi buasir boleh juga disebabkan oleh pelbagai punca. Antaranya ialah faktor keturunan, sembelit, kehamilan, dan aktiviti mengangkat berat.

Hemorrhoids boleh dikategorikan kepada dua kumpulan. ’Internal haemorrhoid’ berlaku apabila buasir bermula dari dalam saluran dubur. Sementara ‘external haemorrhoids’ pula berasal dari kawasan sekeliling lubang dubur. Buasir yang disebabkan oleh internal hemorrhoids boleh berdarah dari dalam saluran dubur dan ‘terkeluar’ (prolapse). Pesakit boleh merasa ada ‘ketumbuhan’ di luar lubang dubur (anus) mereka terutama ketika buang air besar.

Internal hemorrhoids boleh dibahagikan kepada 4 bahagian (stage).

Stage I: Buasir hanya berdarah saja, tetapi tidak terkeluar

Stage II: Buasir terkeluar dan boleh dimasukkan semula dengan sendirinya , sama ada berdarah atau tidak

Stage III: Buasir terkeluar dan perlu ditolak semula ke dalam dengan jari, sama ada berdarah atau tidak
Hemorrhoids boleh dikategorikan kepada dua kumpulan. ’Internal haemorrhoid’ berlaku apabila buasir bermula dari dalam saluran dubur. Sementara ‘external haemorrhoids’ pula berasal dari kawasan sekeliling lubang dubur. Buasir yang disebabkan oleh internal hemorrhoids boleh berdarah dari dalam saluran dubur dan ‘terkeluar’ (prolapse). Pesakit boleh merasa ada ‘ketumbuhan’ di luar lubang dubur (anus) mereka terutama ketika buang air besar.

Internal hemorrhoids boleh dibahagikan kepada 4 bahagian (stage).

Stage I: Buasir hanya berdarah saja, tetapi tidak terkeluar

Stage II: Buasir terkeluar dan boleh dimasukkan semula dengan sendirinya , sama ada berdarah atau tidak

Stage III: Buasir terkeluar dan perlu ditolak semula ke dalam dengan jari, sama ada berdarah atau tidak

Stage IV: Terkeluar dan tidak boleh langsung dimasukkan semula.

Pembahagian ini perlu difahami kerana doktor akan merawat buasir mengikut tahap serius buasir itu. Malangnya saya tidak memeriksa pesakit dan saya mengharapkan agar apa yang saya tulis ini akan membantu pesakit ketika berbincang dengan doktor yang merawat nanti.

Kalau mengikut cerita yang diberikan, saya percaya buasir yang puan hadapi telah memasuki stage III atau stage IV kerana buasir itu tidak boleh dimasukkan lagi. Jika boleh pun, ia agak sukar.

Isu yang dihadapi bukanlah isu sama ada buasir itu keluar atau tidak, tetapi pesakit tidak dapat menanggung lagi kesakitan. Kesakitan buasir di sekitar lubang dubur disebabkan oleh pembekuan darah (thrombosis) dalam buasir. Darah yang beku ini jika tidak dirawat boleh menyebabkan jangkitan kuman dan bernanah.

Selalu juga pesakit yang berjumpa saya mengadu lubang dubur mereka gatal akibat ada lendiran yang keluar dari situ. Ini tentunya akan menyebabkan jangkitan kuman yang agak teruk nanti. Oleh itu haruslah dibersihkan dengan cara melakukan teknik sitz-bath. Caranya ialah dengan duduk dalam basin yang mengandungi rendaman yang dicampurkan ubat bagi membersihkan lubang dubur dari jangkitan kuman.

Buasir di peringkat awal, dirawat secara konservatif iaitu dengan memberikan ubat-ubat seperti ubat mengurangkan sembelit, ointments atau suppository yang dimasukkan ke dalam lubang dubur. Pada kebiasaannya doktor tidak melakukan pembedahan besar terhadap pesakit yang mengalami buasir yang boleh dimasukkan semula.

Pembedahan ringkas ‘daycare’ hanya dilakukan pada pesakit yang tidak dapat menahan kesakitan akibat buasirnya dan ubat-ubatan yang diberikan tidak lagi memberikan kesan yang baik. Pembedahan ringkas seperti ini sesuai untuk pesakit buasir Stage I, II, atau III.
Stage IV: Terkeluar dan tidak boleh langsung dimasukkan semula.

Pembahagian ini perlu difahami kerana doktor akan merawat buasir mengikut tahap serius buasir itu. Malangnya saya tidak memeriksa pesakit dan saya mengharapkan agar apa yang saya tulis ini akan membantu pesakit ketika berbincang dengan doktor yang merawat nanti.

Kalau mengikut cerita yang diberikan, saya percaya buasir yang puan hadapi telah memasuki stage III atau stage IV kerana buasir itu tidak boleh dimasukkan lagi. Jika boleh pun, ia agak sukar.

Isu yang dihadapi bukanlah isu sama ada buasir itu keluar atau tidak, tetapi pesakit tidak dapat menanggung lagi kesakitan. Kesakitan buasir di sekitar lubang dubur disebabkan oleh pembekuan darah (thrombosis) dalam buasir. Darah yang beku ini jika tidak dirawat boleh menyebabkan jangkitan kuman dan bernanah.

Selalu juga pesakit yang berjumpa saya mengadu lubang dubur mereka gatal akibat ada lendiran yang keluar dari situ. Ini tentunya akan menyebabkan jangkitan kuman yang agak teruk nanti. Oleh itu haruslah dibersihkan dengan cara melakukan teknik sitz-bath. Caranya ialah dengan duduk dalam basin yang mengandungi rendaman yang dicampurkan ubat bagi membersihkan lubang dubur dari jangkitan kuman.

Buasir di peringkat awal, dirawat secara konservatif iaitu dengan memberikan ubat-ubat seperti ubat mengurangkan sembelit, ointments atau suppository yang dimasukkan ke dalam lubang dubur. Pada kebiasaannya doktor tidak melakukan pembedahan besar terhadap pesakit yang mengalami buasir yang boleh dimasukkan semula.

Pembedahan ringkas ‘daycare’ hanya dilakukan pada pesakit yang tidak dapat menahan kesakitan akibat buasirnya dan ubat-ubatan yang diberikan tidak lagi memberikan kesan yang baik. Pembedahan ringkas seperti ini sesuai untuk pesakit buasir Stage I, II, atau III. Hemorrhoids boleh dikategorikan kepada dua kumpulan. ’Internal haemorrhoid’ berlaku apabila buasir bermula dari dalam saluran dubur. Sementara ‘external haemorrhoids’ pula berasal dari kawasan sekeliling lubang dubur. Buasir yang disebabkan oleh internal hemorrhoids boleh berdarah dari dalam saluran dubur dan ‘terkeluar’ (prolapse). Pesakit boleh merasa ada ‘ketumbuhan’ di luar lubang dubur (anus) mereka terutama ketika buang air besar.

Internal hemorrhoids boleh dibahagikan kepada 4 bahagian (stage).

Stage I: Buasir hanya berdarah saja, tetapi tidak terkeluar

Stage II: Buasir terkeluar dan boleh dimasukkan semula dengan sendirinya , sama ada berdarah atau tidak

Stage III: Buasir terkeluar dan perlu ditolak semula ke dalam dengan jari, sama ada berdarah atau tidak

Stage IV: Terkeluar dan tidak boleh langsung dimasukkan semula.

Pembahagian ini perlu difahami kerana doktor akan merawat buasir mengikut tahap serius buasir itu. Malangnya saya tidak memeriksa pesakit dan saya mengharapkan agar apa yang saya tulis ini akan membantu pesakit ketika berbincang dengan doktor yang merawat nanti.

Kalau mengikut cerita yang diberikan, saya percaya buasir yang puan hadapi telah memasuki stage III atau stage IV kerana buasir itu tidak boleh dimasukkan lagi. Jika boleh pun, ia agak sukar.

Isu yang dihadapi bukanlah isu sama ada buasir itu keluar atau tidak, tetapi pesakit tidak dapat menanggung lagi kesakitan. Kesakitan buasir di sekitar lubang dubur disebabkan oleh pembekuan darah (thrombosis) dalam buasir. Darah yang beku ini jika tidak dirawat boleh menyebabkan jangkitan kuman dan bernanah.

Selalu juga pesakit yang berjumpa saya mengadu lubang dubur mereka gatal akibat ada lendiran yang keluar dari situ. Ini tentunya akan menyebabkan jangkitan kuman yang agak teruk nanti. Oleh itu haruslah dibersihkan dengan cara melakukan teknik sitz-bath. Caranya ialah dengan duduk dalam basin yang mengandungi rendaman yang dicampurkan ubat bagi membersihkan lubang dubur dari jangkitan kuman.

Buasir di peringkat awal, dirawat secara konservatif iaitu dengan memberikan ubat-ubat seperti ubat mengurangkan sembelit, ointments atau suppository yang dimasukkan ke dalam lubang dubur. Pada kebiasaannya doktor tidak melakukan pembedahan besar terhadap pesakit yang mengalami buasir yang boleh dimasukkan semula.

Pembedahan ringkas ‘daycare’ hanya dilakukan pada pesakit yang tidak dapat menahan kesakitan akibat buasirnya dan ubat-ubatan yang diberikan tidak lagi memberikan kesan yang baik. Pembedahan ringkas seperti ini sesuai untuk pesakit buasir Stage I, II, atau III.

Antara yang boleh dilakukan ialah infrared coagulation, suntikan pada buasir atau mengikat buasir dengan teknik rubber banding. Selalunya pesakit buasir pada Stage I dan II akan mendapat kesembuhan. Bagi stage III, buasir boleh berulang.

Walau bagaimana pun, buasir yang sakit atau terdapat pendarahan haruslah berjumpa dengan doktor pakar yang memeriksa. Tidak kiralah sama ada ia masih diperingkat awal, eg stage I atau stage II. Doktor pakar akan menentukan sama pesakit sama perlu dibedah atau tidak. Masalah ini bertambah sukar memandangkan pesakit sedang hamil sekarang.

Jadi perbincangan antara doktor dan pesakit amat penting kerana doktor akan menimbang manfaat dan kemudharatan. Apakah pembedahan besar ketika hamil memberikan manfaat? Atau adakah lebih baik dibiarkan pesakit menderita kesakitan sehingga melahirkan anak, memandangkan kemudaratan lebih besar bagi bayi yang berada dalam rahem? Soalan ini sukar saya jawab kerana pertimbangan antara manfaat dan mudharat hanya boleh dilakukan oleh doktor yang merawat.

Pada kebiasaannya, pembedahan yang lebih besar seperti haemorrhoidectomy harus dilakukan kepada pesakit buasir pada Stage III atau IV hemorrhoids.

Ketika dibius pengsan, doktor boleh melakukan pemeriksaan usus colon jika pesakit bimbang akan risiko kanser usus besar (colon) sepertimana yang dihadapi oleh arwah bapa beliau dengan teknik flexible sigmoidoscopy.

Luka pembedahan buasir tidak dijahit dan biarkan begitu saja bagi mengelakkan nanah berkumpul pada luka pembedahan. Namun ada juga beberapa benang yang mungkin dijahitkan, bertujuan untuk mengurang pendarahan yang teruk selepas pembedahan.

Risiko yang biasa dihadapi selepas pembedahan ialah pendarahan dan jangkitan kuman. Pesakit juga kadang kala merasa sakit yang kuat apabila otot dubur mengecut. Kadang kala pesakit tidak buang air besar dan tidak selera makan kerana takut untuk membuang najis dan merasa sakit.



Luka selepas pembedahan akan sembuh antara dua minggu hingga sebulan. Jadi sepanjang tempuh ini, pesakit masih menderita kesakitan.

Jadi sama ada wajar atau tidak pembedahan dilakukan, adalah isu yang harus dibincangkan dengan doktor pakar. Pembedahan tidak akan melegakan kesakitan kerana proses penyembuhan memakan masa yang agak lama. Walaubagaimanapun, kesengsaraan itu akan berakhir apabila luka pembedahan itu telah sembuh.

Wa allahu a’lam.



Susunan: Dr Zubaidi Hj Ahmad (031111)

Oct 3, 2012

Doa ringkas selepas solat

Sep 25, 2012

Copy Windows XP Folder File Names to Notepad

dir /b >list.txt
or
dir /a /-p /o:gen >list.txt
or
Powerdesk

It's a windows explorer replacement. Once it's installed go to the directory you want with the directories (or files) to list in the right hand window - click on one - control A to select all then edit (on the top line) and copy name as text. Control v to paste in notepad.

Available free from here

Sep 16, 2012

Ubuntu Linux How do I install .deb packages?

How do I install .deb file?




To install package called package.deb type the following command:
Go to directory where package.deb is kept. For example if it is in /tmp directory:


$ cd /tmp



Type the following command:



$ sudo dpkg -i package.deb

Sep 13, 2012

VmWare Player and remote file system 2GB limit

If you get the following error

"VMware Player cannot open one of the virtual disks needed by this VM because it is larger than the maximum file size supported by the host file system. Some remote file systems do not support files larger than 2 GB, even though the file system on the server might.
Cannot open the disk ".....vmdk" or one of the snapshot disks it depends on.
Reason: The file is too large."

Then simply edit the vmx file for the machine in a text editor and add this line:

diskLib.sparseMaxFileSizeCheck= "FALSE"

Sep 10, 2012

Adding exception list in Windows 7 Firewall

Adding Tomcat to the exception list:



One has to be logged on as an administrator to complete this procedure.



1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel.



2. All Control Panel Item window will get displayed, Select & open Windows Firewall.



3. Windows Firewall window will get opened as shown in image below. Select Allow a program or feature through Windows firewall.



4. Allowed Programs window will get opened. In Allow program and features, search the check box for the Apache Tomcat, and then click OK else click on Allow another program to allow Apache Tomcat program.



5. Add a Program dialog will get opened. Click on Browse button, locate the Apache Tomcat program, and then double-click it. (Apache Tomcat Program is usually stored in the Program Files folder.) The program will appear under Programs, in the Add a Program dialog box. Click Add button.



6. The Tomcat program will appear, selected, in Allowed program and feature. Click on OK.



Note:

Risk of allowing exceptions



Each time that you allow an exception for a program to communicate through Windows Firewall, your computer is made more vulnerable. To allow an exception is like poking a hole through the firewall. If there are too many holes, there is not much wall left in your firewall. Unknown intruders often use software that scans the Internet looking for computers with unprotected connections. If you have many exceptions and open ports, your computer can become a victim of these intruders.

Sep 1, 2012

32bit 64bit software and 32bit 64bit processor,

Will this 32-bit software run on my 64-bit operating system? or


Will this 64-bit software run on my computer?


If you've asked these questions then this tutorial should help you to understand the concepts of 32-bit and 64-bit computing. We'll look at your computer system as three parts: the hardware, the operating system and the application programs. At the end we'll look at some of the common questions people have.



32-bit versus 64-bit


As the number of bits increases there are two important benefits.



  • More bits means that data can be processed in larger chunks which also means more accurately.


  • More bits means our system can point to or address a larger number of locations in physical memory.



32-bit systems were once desired because they could address (point to) 4 Gigabytes (GB) of memory in one go. Some modern applications require more than 4 GB of memory to complete their tasks so 64-bit systems are now becoming more attractive because they can potentially address up to 4 billion times that many locations.


Since 1995, when Windows 95 was introduced with support for 32-bit applications, most of the software and operating system code has been 32-bit compatible.


Here is the problem, while most of the software available today is 32-bit, the processors we buy are almost all 64-bit.



So how long will the transition from 32-bit to 64-bit systems take?


The main issue is that your computer works from the hardware such as the processor (or CPU, as it is called), through the operating system (OS), to the highest level which is your applications. So the computer hardware is designed first, the matching operating systems are developed, and finally the applications appear.


We can look back at the transition from 16-bit to 32-bit Windows on 32-bit processors. It took 10 years (from 1985 to 1995) to get a 32-bit operating system and even now, more than 15 years later, there are many people still using 16-bit Windows applications on older versions of Windows.


The hardware and software vendors learnt from the previous transition, so the new operating systems have been released at the same time as the new processors. The problem this time is that there haven't been enough 64-bit applications. Ten years after the PC's first 64-bit processors, installs of 64-bit Windows are only now exceeding those of 32-bit Windows. Further evidence of this inertia is that you are probably reading this tutorial because you are looking to install your first 64-bit software.



Your computer system in three parts


Now we'll look at those three components of your system. In simple terms they are three layers with the processor or CPU as the central or lowest layer and the application as the outermost or highest layer as shown below:


Processor, OS and application hierarchy


To run a 64-bit operating system you need support from the lower level: the 64-bit CPU.


To run a 64-bit application you need support from all lower levels: the 64-bit OS and the 64-bit CPU.


This simplification will be enough for us to look what happens when we mix the 32-bit and 64-bit parts. But if you want to understand the issue more deeply then you will also need to consider the hardware that supports the CPU and the device drivers that allow the OS and the applications to interface with the system hardware.



What 32-bit and 64-bit combinations are compatible and will work together?


This is where we get to the practicalities and can start answering common questions.


The general rule is that 32-bit will run on a lower level 64-bit component but 64-bit does not run on a lower level 32-bit component:



  • A 32-bit OS will run on a 32-bit or 64-bit processor without any problem.


  • A 32-bit application will run on a 32-bit or 64-bit OS without any problem.


  • But a 64-bit application will only run on a 64-bit OS and a 64-bit OS will only run on a 64-bit processor.



These two tables illustrate the same rule:




The main reason that 32-bit will always run on 64-bit is that the 64-bit components have been designed to work that way. So the newer 64-bit systems are backward-compatible with the 32-bit systems (which is the main reason most of us haven't moved to 64-bit software).


An example of backward compatibility is Windows 64-bit. It has software called WOW64 that provides compatibility by emulating a 32-bit system. See the article How Windows 7 / Vista 64 Support 32-bit Applications [2] if you want to know more. One important point that is made in that article is that it is not possible to install a 32-bit device driver on a 64-bit operating system. This is because device drivers run in parallel to the operating system. The emulation is done at the operating system level so it is available to the higher layer, the application, but it is not available to the device driver which runs on the same level.



Hardware virtualization is the exception to the rule


Another question many people have is whether a 32-bit system can run 64-bit software. As more people are looking to use 64-bit Windows they are wanting to try it out on their existing systems. So we are getting more questions about whether they can run it on their 32-bit processor or under their 32-bit OS.


Following the general rule, we would expect that you cannot run 64-bit software on a 32-bit system. Except that there is one exception called virtualization.


Virtualization creates a virtual system within the actual system. Virtualization can be achieved in hardware or software but it works best if the virtual machine is created in the system hardware. The guest operating system is not aware that there is a host operating system already running. This is the way that a 64-bit operating system can think that it is running on 64-bit hardware without being aware that there is a 32-bit operating system in the mix.


Tables 3 and 4 illustrate the result. Provided that the virtual machine can actually be created and isolated by the virtualizing software then the host OS is effectively removed from the equation, so I've grayed it out. We can now apply the general rules for a non-virtualized system to the three remaining layers.





Before you hurry away to try running 64-bit in a virtual machine, you must check that your computer BIOS supports hardware virtualization. If it does not then hardware virtualization will not work even if the CPU does support it.



Emulation of the 64-bit CPU is not an option


All the feasible configurations that we have looked at so far have the processors (CPUs) running software that use the instruction set that is native to that processor. Running 64-bit software on a 32-bit processor doesn't work because the 64-bit instructions are not native to a 32-bit processor. But what if I could emulate a 64-bit processor using 32-bit software?


It is theoretically possible but practically impossible to emulate a 64-bit processor while running software on a 32-bit processor. Even if you can get non-native 64-bit emulation to work, the virtual machine that duplicates a 64-bit CPU would run very slowly because every 64-bit instruction has to be trapped and handled by the emulator. 64-bit memory pointers also have to be converted to work within the 32-bit address space.


Furthermore, my understanding is that the x86 (32-bit) processors used in PCs and Apple Macs are not able to completely emulate the x64 (64-bit) instruction set. Some 64-bit instructions cannot be trapped by the emulator. This causes the system to crash when the x86 processor tried to run those x64 instructions.


 



Answers to common questions about 32-bit and 64-bit systems



Will a 64-bit CPU run a 32-bit program on a 64-bit version of an OS?


Yes it will. 64-bit systems are backward-compatible with their 32-bit counterparts.



Will a 64-bit OS run a 32-bit application on a 64-bit processor?


Yes it will. Again, this is because of backward compatibility.



Can 64-bit applications contain 32-bit code?


Yes, many times 64-bit software will contain portions of 32-bit code.


Similarly 32-bit software (usually very old programs) can have some code in 16-bit which is why those 32-bit applications will usually fail to run properly on a 64-bit OS.



Can 16-bit applications or code run on 64-bit systems?


No, as we said previously. 16-bit code will NOT run on 64-bit OS because the designers did not provide backward-compatibility. This is one reason why some 32-bit programs will not work on 64-bit operating systems.



Can a 64-bit CPU with a 32-bit host OS run a virtual machine (VM) for a 64-bit guest OS?


Yes. It all depends upon the level of virtualization.


With software virtualization it is hardly likely to work, or if it does work it may be very slow.


Hardware virtualization will need to be supported by the CPU (e.g. with Intel-VT or AMD-V) and the BIOS.


 



Answers to common questions about 32- and 64-bit Windows



Can I run Windows 2000 and Windows XP on a 64-bit CPU, and use old software?


Yes, a 32-bit OS (Windows 2000 or XP) will run on a 64-bit processor.You should also be able to run older 32-bit software on a 64-bit OS.



Is a Windows Vista or Windows 7 license key valid for both 32-bit and 64-bit versions?


Yes, unless you have an OEM version. If it was installed on your computer when you bought it and you only have one Windows disk then it is almost certainly an OEM version and you will have to buy the other bit version if you want it. If you have two disks, one for 32-bit Windows and one for 64-bit Windows, then you have a non-OEM version so you get to choose which bit version you will use without having to buy another license. See Microsoft Answers [3] for a discussion of these issues.


Remember, if you have only bought one license then, even if you have both bit versions on disk, you are only licensed to install and run one version on one computer.



How do find out if my system is 64-bit?


Microsoft provide resources to help you find out such as FAQ on 32-bit and 64-bit Windows [4] and Taking the mystery our of 64-bit Windows [5].


I recommend that you look at downloading SecurAble from Gibson Research Corporation (GRC) [6] which will tell you if you have a 64-bit processor with the useful features of hardware DEP and hardware virtualization.



How do I migrate my 32-bit system to 64-bit Windows?


There is no upgrade path from 32-bit to 64-bit Windows only from 64-bit Windows. You will almost certainly have to do a clean install of your 64-bit operating system, copy back your data files, and reinstall your 32-bit applications.


If you want to keep your old install then you can try dual booting or virtualization.



How do I run 32-bit software once I have installed 64-bit Windows?


Windows 7 64-bit provides a 32-bit compatibility mode called WOW32 (Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit) that should run most if not all your applications. See How Windows 64-bit supports 32-bit Applications [2].


If you have 32-bit application you want to run from the Command Prompt then you need to use the WOW64 version of cmd.exe. At the Start Menu select Run and enter the following command. Note that the %systemroot% variable points to your Windows folder so this will work even if Windows is not installed on C: drive:


%systemroot%\SysWOW64\cmd.exe



If your application won't run under Windows 64-bit then try XP Mode, Windows Virtual PC, or other virtualization solution [7]. Be aware that XP Mode reduces your system security and so it should be used as a last resort.



How can I tell if my application is 32-bit or 64-bit?


There are a number of indicators of the bit type for your program but they are not definitive as you will see if you use guidelines like the following.



  • Windows installs your programs to these folders on your system drive:

    • '\Program Files' for 64-bit programs


    • '\Program Files (x86)' for 32-bit programs



  • In Task Manager, 32-bit processes will usually have a suffix of '*32' and 64-bit processes will not.



The reason that these indicators cannot be relied upon relates to the way 64-bit Windows installs software. 64-bit install packages usually install 64-bit applications or a mixture of 32- and 64-bit components but can even install only 32-bit components.


What determines where a component is installed is the registry setting for that component rather than the setting for the install package. Windows also assumes that all components are 32-bit unless told otherwise. This means that a 64-bit component not flagged as 64-bit will install to 32-bit folders and 32-bit registry keys but will execute as 64-bit.


You can, with the necessary knowledge, find the information yourself but there are better solutions:



  • Run a system information or audit tool such as Belarc Adviser. Just be aware that most of these types of applications are helpful but not definitive e.g. SIW, MSINFO.


  • I recommend running the PowerShell script from Auditing 32-Bit and 64-Bit Applications with PowerShell [8] which will list all installed applications and their bitness. Just remember to run the 64-bit script to get all versions as the 32-bit script will not have access to the 64-bit portions of the registry.


  • If you want more detail about the modules used by a program then try Dependency Walker [9], which is also part of Microsoft development tools such as Visual Studio and Visual C++.

    As with other software running under 64-bit Windows you will get the best results if you run the 32- or 64-bit version of Dependency Walker that matches the application you want to check. Remember that Windows 64-bit restricts access to the relevant 32-bit or 64-bit portions of the registry.




What are the differences between Windows 32-bit and 64-bit?


I've chosen to highlight the physical and logical differences between each version of desktop Windows as shown in Table 5. This table illustrates the progressive improvement of Windows 64-bit and indicates that Windows has a long way to go before it exhausts the capabilities of 64-bit processors.


Many of the limits in the 64-bit versions of Windows are design choices rather than limitations of the 64-bit CPUs. The number of physical processors is the most obvious as Windows Server editions support many more.


Hardware is also limited by design. For example, while 64-bit AMD and Intel CPUs use 64-bit  memory pointers, the supporting chipsets only use a 52-bit physical address space (4 Petabytes) and a 48-bit virtual memory space (256 Terabytes). This is presently more than sufficient because Windows 7 64-bit only allows 192 GB of physical memory and 16 Terabytes (44-bits) of virtual memory.





Note 1. I have used Gigabytes (GB) for consistency even though it would be convenient to convert  1,024 GB to 1 TB.


Note 2. I've excluded the first 64-bit version of Windows XP (2002) because it has a different architecture. It used Intel Itanium (IA-64) CPUs which had an x86 processor built-in for compatibility. It was replaced by AMD's 64-bit architecture (x86-64) which extended the x86 instruction set and worked so well that it has been licensed by Intel and other chip makers. The name is commonly shortened to x64 as it is the most common 64-bit CPU type today.

Jul 7, 2012

Honda Civic DIY Cabin Dust Filter and Plug





Jun 23, 2012

Extra Plugin Google Adsense



Extra Plugin is a Google Adsense plugin for your wordpress blogs with Placement Targeting feature that target your categories and places a different Adsense channel for a different category. This way, you can make more channels for your Adsense ads that are related to a category, making every channel more targeted to your articles. Niche and targeted channels can get more advertisers, thus increasing your CTR and CPC. Also, such targeted channels are sometimes featured in the Adwords system, which will help you to get more high paying advertisers.

Jun 9, 2012

A Doctor of Philosophy PhD



I'm running out of the time right now, for those out there thinking of PhD here is the good link to begin with http://www.dayjob.com/content/phd-degree-874.htm. I'm stuck right now, it is way beyond my expectation, how on earth 'm going to prepare for my PhD, haha ... talk to few prospect supervisors yet still dont know which area or niche is belong and suite me well, because I'm going to stick with it for the rest of the journey. This is the year where each of the second is counted. Ya ALLAH, blessing me and show me the route to success and happiness.

Jun 5, 2012

Refinance Rumah


Cara Buat Refinance Rumah

Secara asasnya, ada 3 tujuan yang biasa kami dengar tentang pembiayaan semula rumah ini :

  1. Nak kurangkan bayaran bulanan
  2. Nak dapatkan duit samada untuk buat renovation, setelkan hutang dan sebagainya.
  3. Ada offer baru dari bank yang lebih bagus dari pembiayaan sekarang.

Tetapi, yang selalu kita dengar golongan yang biasa buat refinance ini, adalah terdiri daripada golongan dari 1. dan 2. tadi. Baiklah, sebelum nak refinance rumah, kita sendiri perlu tahu apa tujuan sebenarnya apabila mahu buat pembiayaan semula rumah ini. Ramai yang buat silap dengan refinance rumah disebabkan untuk mendapatkan duit semata dan kemudian beli barang-barang yang tidak perlu atau maksudnya berjoli. Ini selalu yang kami nampak pada kebanyakan orang. Namun, terpulanglah. Sendiri punya duit, pandai-pandaila uruskan bukan. Terpulang. Nak cakap banyak, masing-masing dah besar.

Okey……setelah anda dah tahu apa tujuan anda nak buat refinance ini, barulah kita pergi “jalan-jalan” dulu ke setiap bank untuk mendapatkan pilihan tawaran yang terbaik. Bersesuaian dengan kehendak dan tujuan kita tadi. Lain bank, lain kadar faedah serta keistimewaannya. Namun, apa yang penting adalah anda mestilah mencari tawaran yang terbaik bersesuaian dengan apa tujuan anda. Ada beberapa perkara penting yang perlu anda ambil tahu sebelum membuat pembiayaan semula ini.

Cara Buat Refinance Rumah

Di antaranya ialah:

1) Maklumat Kediaman:

  • Alamat rumah dan jenis hartanah .
  • Keluasan tanah .
  • Build up area@Keluasan Dibina
  • Freehold@ leased hold
  • Ada pernah buat Renovation & Kos
  • Jumlah Pinjaman Sebelum Ini
  • Jangkamasa Pinjaman.e.g 25 tahun
  • Bayaran bulanan pinjaman
  • Tarikh pembayaran pinjaman pertama
  • Jangkamasa Lock-In
  • Harga Semasa Kediaman

2) Parameter Pembiayaan

  • Pembiayaan 80%@90% pada harga semasa
  • Faedah pembiayaan yang ditawarkan
  • Jumlah bayaran bulanan maksimum
  • Jangkamasa pembiayaan.e.g 20 tahun@25 tahun@30 tahun
  • Jenis Pembiayaan-Flexi Konvensional@Fixed Islamik
  • Jangkamasa Lock-Down.Kebiasaannya adalah 3 hingga 5 tahun
  • Kemudahan Pembayaran Awal(samada tidak dikenakan penalty dan kadar faedah berkurangan)
  • Faedah Daily Rest@Monthly Compounded
  • Zero move in cost atau Non Zero move in cost

Baiklah, apabila anda sudah sudah tahu maklumat dan parameter pembiayaan seperti di atas tadi, adalah lebih baik anda meminta quote harga kepada sebanyak bank yang boleh. Selidik quote tersebut dengan teliti dan sebaiknya.Jangan tandatangan apa-apa lagi pada waktu ini. Setelah itu, pilih 3 yang terbaik dan isi borang serta hantarkan kepada bank-bank berkenaan. Setelah mendapatkan offer letter dari pihak bank, jangan tandatangan lagi. Gunakan offer letter tersebut untuk counter offer dari bank-bank yang terdiri dari 3 yang terbaik tadi. Ini adalah trick untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak faedah seperti kadar faedah yang lebih rendah serta fleksibiliti pembayaran.

Selepas anda sudah memilih dengan tawaran yang paling terbaik tadi, barulah anda boleh menandatangani perjanjian. Dan jangan lupa, sering kami ingatkan di sini bahawa klausa perjanjian perlulah dibaca dengan teliti. Ramai yang ambil mudah benda-benda ini. Almaklumlah tebal bebenor, sampai naik rimas pula nak kaji selai-selai kan? Tapi benda ini penting. Ada klausa-klausa perjanjian tertentu yang perlu diambil perhatian seperti penyelesaian awal.

Ada sesetengah bank menawarkan penyelesaian awal tanpa dikenakan faedah atas jumlah pinjaman dan ada juga yang tidak menawarkan fleksibiliti berikut. Jadi, itu adalah contoh yang perlu anda ambil perhatian. Berikut di bawah juga diberikan jenis-jenis pembiayaan perumahan yang biasa terdapat di bank-bank di Malaysia. Maaf, ianya dalam bahasa Inggeris. Ada lebih baik kami tuliskan ia begitu kerana rasanya ia lebih mudah faham dari terma bahasa Melayu.

Cara Buat Refinance Rumah

TERM LOAN (TL) FEATURES

  • Traditional Basic Home Loan
  • Amortizing (Reducing) based on loan tenure.
  • No withdrawal allow
  • Pre-Payment allows for completed property.
  • Semi-Annual/Annual Home Loan Statement given.
  • Must Discharge from Bank upon full settlement.
  • Suitable for Fixed income earner (Employment) with minimal saving surplus.
  • No Monthly Maintenance Charges
  • Daily Rest Calculation* – subject to bank’s packages offered (Not applicable for Islamic Loan)

TERM LOAN (TL) TYPES
A) Conventional Flexi-Term Loan.

  • Multi Tiers Rates.
  • Follow BLR fluctuations.
  • Installment is not fixed as BLR will fluctuate.
  • No Withdrawal allows. *Currently few banks allow withdrawal if you paid extra – min. RM5K per w/draw & RM50 fee, will be charge.
  • Penalty will be charge if you are to REFINANCE, SELL OFF or FULLY SETTLE within LOCK-IN Period.
  • Only few bank’s package allow prepayment during construction period.* subject to package term & conditions.

B) Flexi-Fixed Rates Term Loan.

  • Single Tier Rate.
  • No BLR fluctuation affects.
  • Installment & Total Repayment is Fixed.
  • No Withdrawal allows.
  • Penalty will be charge if you are to REFINANCE within LOCK-IN Period.
  • No Penalty for Fully Settlement or Sell Of Property – Anytime.
  • Allow prepayment during construction period.
  • Minimal Chances of Refinancing since the current rate is lower the BLR. Unless You need to cash out.

OVERDRAFT LOAN (OD) FEATURES

  • Normally is a Single Tier Rates.
  • Follow BLR fluctuations.
  • Loan A/C = Current A/C = Not Amortizing (Reducing) loan.
  • Higher Interest Rate compare to TL.
  • Allow withdrawal by issuing checks.
  • Allow Pre-Payment.
  • Penalty will be charge if you are to REFINANCE, SELL OFF or FULLY SETTLE within LOCK-IN Period.
  • Monthly Home Loan Statement given. (Current A/C Statement)
  • No need to discharge upon fully settlement – standby cash
  • Withdrawal Limit = evergreen not amortizing – will chop 20% standby limit at the end of the year starting age 60.
  • Loan above RM250,000 will have 1% commitment fee annually
  • Suitable for Businessmen / Self employment with big cash flow turnover
  • Client With Bounces Check blacklisted will not entitled for this loan – CTOS BMC positives
  • RM10 maintenance Charges.*
  • Daily Rest Calculation.
  • No need to Refinance again since OD allow standby Cash upon early fully paid off.

FLEXI-WITHDRAW LOAN (Hybrid Loan) – Combination of Term Loan & Overdraft facility

  • Multi Tiers Rates
  • Follow BLR fluctuations.
  • Installment is not fixed as BLR & loan outstanding will fluctuate.
  • Allow prepayment during construction period.
  • Penalty will be charge if you are to REFINANCE, SELL OFF or FULLY SETTLE within LOCK-IN Period.
  • Loan A/C = Current A/C + ATM card => Amortizing (Reducing) loan 07. Monthly Home Loan Statement given. (Current A/C Statement)
  • No need to discharge upon fully settlement – standby cash
  • Withdrawal Limit Amortizing – Follow Term Loan Amortizing
  • No Annual commitment fee .
  • Suitable for Businessmen / Self employment with big cash flow turnover.
  • Client With Bounces Check blacklisted will not entitled for this loan – CTOS BMC positives.
  • RM10 maintenance Charges.
  • Daily Rest Calculation.
  • Interest Rate Cheaper Than OD rate.
  • No need to Refinance again since Hybrid Loan allow standby Cash upon early fully paid off.

Cara Buat Refinance Rumah

Sekali lagi, ianya bergantung kepada tujuan anda ingin membuat pembiayaan semula ini. Namun, kami lebih suka sekiranya pembiayaan semula digunakan untuk membuat pelaburan baru ataupun mengurangkan kadar bayaran bulanan disamping mendapat lebihan wang untuk membuat pelaburan seperti membeli rumah lelong, menyimpan di ASB dan sebagainya dari mengubahsuai rumah. Ini kerana, bagi saya pembiayaan semula bertujuan untuk kita mendapatkan lebihan wang sebagai tujuan utama. Jadi, untuk memaksimakan duit tersebut, adalah lebih baik dari melaburkannya. Dan dari faedah pelaburan seperti ASB, rumah sewa, Homestay dan sebagainya, ianya sedikit sebanyak juga dapat menambahkan lagi pendapatan.

Namun ianya terpulang kepada anda. Berkemungkinan anda menghadapi masalah kewangan dan ingin menyelesaikan hutang seperti hutang kad kredit,pinjaman peribadi dan sebagainya. Jadi, pokok pangkalnya disini, tujuan pembiayaan semula anda hendaklah memberikan faedah atau kesan positif kepada anda, dan bukan sebaliknya. Sekali lagi, sekiranya anda ada apa-apa info yang mahu ditambah, sila kongsikan dengan rakan-rakan pembaca di ruangan komen.Ayuh!

May 17, 2012

Format for research proposal in computing


The general format for research proposal in (computing, not sure about other fields) should be something like

+ Overview
- Overview of your research;
+ Objectives (aims and goals)
- a paragraph about your research objectives
+ Introduction
- 1/2 pages about your research area, usually Research papers citation - for example, reference to computer network and tools/technology which you might be using
+ Research Question
- this is very much important - for example, what motivates you to do this rhttp://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gifesearch, what academic challenges you have, what will be your contribution etc most full time students spend first six months on Research Question;
+ Research Plan
- General Overview of your Research plan in your research proposal (which you will extend later during your studies) - you don't need to go into detail. something 1/2 pages
+ Conclusion
- a paragraph
+ References
- 15 + recent(after 2007)

USEFUL LINK for research writing

Apr 18, 2012

TOEFL or IELTS ?


By Walton Burns

Admissions

The IELTS test is administrated by the British Councils, the University of Cambridge, and IELTS Australia. That is to say, it is associated with the British government and traditionally was used by British universities, as well as New Zealand and Australian universities to determine the language capability of foreign students. TOEFL is administered by ETS, a US-based non-profit and is used widely by American and Canadian universities. However, these days, in order to make it easy on international students, universities all over the world take both TOEFL and IELTS. While you should check with the specific university you want to apply to, in general any school in the US, the UK, Australia or New Zealand will take either test score. So that’s one worry off your mind. Pick the test you think will be easier for you to complete. To do that, you probably need to know the structure of each exam.

Structure of the TOEFL

As of last year, official TOEFL is almost universally given in the iBT (Internet Based Testing) format. It consists of four sections:

Reading
The TOEFL Reading section asks you to read 4-6 passages of university level and to answer multiple-choice questions about them (multiple-choice means you choose the answer from provided options). Questions test you on comprehension of the text, main ideas, important details, vocabulary, inferring, rhetorical devices and style.

Listening
The Listening Section presents long 2-3 conversations and 4-6 lectures. The situations are always related to university life i.e. a conversation between a student and a librarian about finding research materials or a lecture from a history class. The questions are multiple choice and ask you about important details, inferences, tone, and vocabulary. The conversations and lectures are very natural and include informal English, interruptions, filler noises like “uh” or “Uhm.”

Speaking
The Speaking section is recorded. You will speak into a microphone and a grader will listen to your answers at a later date and grade you. Two questions will be on familiar topics and ask you to give your opinion and/or describe something familiar to you, like your town or your favorite teacher. Two questions will ask you to summarize information from a text and a conversation–and may ask your opinion as well. Two questions will ask you to summarize information from a short conversation. Again, the topics of the conversations are always university-related.

Writing
Finally, there are two short essays on the TOEFL. One will ask you to write your opinion on a broad topic, such as whether it is better to live in the country or the city. One will ask you to summarize information from a text and a lecture–often the two will disagree with each other and you will need to either compare and contrast, or synthesize conflicting information.

IELTS Structure
The IELTS contains the same 4 sections, Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing, but the format is very different.

Reading
The reading section of the IELTS gives you 3 texts, which may be from academic textbooks or from a newspaper or magazine–but all at the level of a university student. One will always be an opinion piece–i.e. a text arguing for one point of view. The variety of questions on the IELTS is quite broad, and not every text will have every question type. One question type asks you to match headings to paragraphs in the text. You may be asked to complete a summary of the passage using words from the text. Or you may have to fill in a table or chart or picture with words from the text. There may be multiple-choice questions that ask you about key details. One of the hardest question types presents statements and asks you whether these statements are true, false or not included in the text. You may also be asked to match words and ideas. Finally, some questions are short-answer but the answers will be taken directly from the text itself.
Some questions come before the text and may not require careful reading to answer. Others come after the text and may expect you to have read the text thoroughly.

Listening
The IELTS has four listening sections. The first is a “transactional conversation” in which someone may be applying for something (a driver’s license, a library card) or asking for information (say calling for more details about an advertisement or a hotel). The second section is an informational lecture of some kind, possibly a dean explaining the rules of the university. Third is a conversation in an academic context and the final section will be an academic lecture. For all sections you may be asked to fill out a summary, fill in a table, answer multiple-choice questions, label a diagram or picture, or classify information into different categories. You will be expected to fill out answers as you listen.

Writing
There are two writing tasks on the academic IELTS. The first asks you to summarize a table or chart in about 300 words. You will have to identify important information, compare and contrast different figures or maybe describe a process. The second task asks you to present your opinion on a statement about a fairly open topic such as: “Women should look after children and not work” or “Too many people are moving to cities and rural areas are suffering.”

Speaking
Finally, the speaking section will be held on a different day from the rest of the test and in the presence of a trained interviewer. The questions are the same for all examinees but some parts may be more in the form of a conversation than a monologue. The first part of the test will be a brief introductory conversation followed by some short questions about familiar topics. The interviewer may ask your name, your job, what kinds of sports you like, what your daily routine is, and so on. In the second part, you will be given a card with a topic and a few specific questions to address. You will have to speak for two minutes on this topic, which may be about your daily routine, the last time you went to the movies, your favorite part of the world or a similar familiar topic. In the last section, the interviewer will ask you to discuss a more abstract side of the topic in part 2–why do people prefer daily routines? Why do people like the movies? How does travel affect local life?

Which is Better for Me?

So now you have some understanding of what each test involves, but you might be wondering which is better for you. Maybe in reading about the structure, you thought, “Wow TOEFL sounds so easy,” or, “Oh the IELTS sounds like it’s kind of fun!” That might be a good sign that one test will be easier for you than the other. More concretely, there are a couple of key differences between the tests.

British versus American English

While both the UK and the US accept both tests, and while British English and American English are not as different as some think, the fact of the matter is the IELTS tends to use British English and the TOEFL uses exclusively American English. On the IELTS, this difference will have a larger effect because spelling counts, and that is one area where Britain and the US do not always see eye-to-eye. Obviously if you have problems with the British accent (and the test may include a wide variety of accents, including Australian, New Zealand, Irish and Scottish). On the other hand, American accents may throw you off. Certain terms are also different and you don’t want to waste time in your speaking test asking what a flat or a lorry is. So whether you are used to British or American English is certainly a factor. If you are more comfortable with US English, the TOEFL is a good bet but if you are used to British English and accents, you’ll do better on the IELTS.

Multiple choice versus Copying Down
For the reading and listening sections, TOEFL gives you multiple-choice questions, whereas IELTS generally expects you to copy down words from the text or the conversation word-for-word. Multiple-choice questions will tend to be require slightly better abstract thinking, but the IELTS favors people who have good memories and think more concretely. The good thing about multiple-choice is that it is easy to pick out wrong answers, whereas the good thing about copying down is that the answer is sitting there in the text. You just have to find it and repeat it. So, concrete thinkers will tend to do better on the IELTS and abstract thinkers will tend to excel on the TOEFL.

Predictable or Different Every Time
Of course, the TOEFL is also more predictable than the IELTS. The IELTS throws lots of different question types at you, and the instructions are often slightly different every time. That makes it harder to prepare for. The TOEFL, on the other hand, is pretty much the same test every time–pick A, B, C, D, or E. On the other hand, the IELTS certainly keeps you on your toes and that can keep you more alert.

Speaking to a Person or a Computer?
Another large difference is in how the speaking section is carried out. For some people, it’s very relaxing to just record your answers into a computer because it feels like no one is listening. You just try your best and forget about it until you get your grades. Because the IELTS test is done in an interview format with a native speaker present, you might get nervous or feel you are being judged. And they take notes: Oh God, did he write down something good or something bad? On the other hand, you might feel more relaxed in a conversation, with a person there to explain if you don’t understand a question, or simply having a face to look at, instead of a computer screen. Getting feedback from a native speaker can be helpful too, in order to correct mistakes and improve during the test. So it depends on what you are more comfortable with. If you like talking to people, the IELTS is a better bet. If you just want to be alone and not feel judged, the TOEFL will be more comfortable for you.

Holistic versus Criteria
Finally, the speaking and writing sections of the TOEFL are graded holistically. The grader gives you a score based on the overall quality of the essay, including vocabulary, logic, style, and grammar. The IELTS by contrast is marked by individual criteria and you are scored individually for grammar, word choice, fluency, logic, cohesion, and a dozen other criteria. In other words, if you write well but have a lot of small grammar mistakes, your TOEFL score might be quite good because graders will ignore small mistakes if the overall essay is logical and detailed. The IELTS will not overlook bad grammar. On the other hand, if your grammar and vocabulary are strong but you have trouble expressing your opinion or organizing an essay, you could end up with a low TOEFL score but the IELTS will give you good marks for language use. So while it may sound like the IELTS is much tougher since it grades you on everything, in fact you can get quite a good score if you are strong in a number of areas. The TOEFL emphasizes the ability to put together a logical and detailed argument (or summary) and looks at clarity, word choice, and style above all. If you don’t feel comfortable writing essays but you think you have excellent grammar and vocabulary and overall are a decent writer, the IELTS will probably be easier for you.

I hope this essay was helpful in making your choice. In any case, I recommend you go to the websites of IELTS and TOEFL and get some more detail on each test, and also try out some practice problems on your own.
http://www.ielts.org and http://www.toefl.org

Walton Burns is an English language teacher and university placement consultant in Astana, Kazakhstan. Check out his blog with more advice for international students and English language learners at http://englishadvantage.blogspot.com and his website at http://english.zendurl.com for games, lesson plans, tests and other cool stuff!
Article Source: EArticles

Quote from web
Hello everybody. I took both IELTS and TOEFL(IELTS: listening-7.5, writing-7.0, speaking-7.5 nad reading:7.0. In total:7.0 I havent recieved TOEFL score yet) so here are my impressions( i would like to describe each section of one test and compare it to respective one in another and give my honest opinion):

Let me start with listening:
As you know in IELTS it consisitsof 4 sections and 10 questions inn each. You have time to read questions before you listen. This structure is quite simple, and you can spend less energy on each question. However, in TOEFL, you are given slightly more questions but more situations. So i thought in this section TOEFL was more difficult.

Speaking. Speaking to microphone(conversation with computer) in TOEFL, for me was more complicated for several reasons:
1. Microphone itself was not of good qualiti and i had to halfy close it with hands.
2. Some other students were talking when i was trying to do the same.
In IELST test you are given separete room with examiner(HUMAN). They are trained to make you feel as if you are talking to one of your friends.

By now :IELTS :2 TOEFL: 0

Reading: Here i’d prefer TOEFL to IELTS also for some reasons:
1. Reading passages are not so long
2. Question types.

Writing:
Absolute winner, in my opinion, is TOEFL IBT. let me explain why:
First of all you type essays instead of writing it by hand. As a result you can easily correct it or reorgonize without changing the visiual impression.
secondly, you are given plenty of time(so if you can type quickly it is big plus)

Conclusion: Everything i have written is only my opinion of both tests and i hope that my ” review will be helpful for some of you in future.



HELLO!!!
Ok, guys, I have taken toefl and ielts both. In toefl my score was 85, ibt. Ielts was 8.5 Now, why ielts over toefl:
- Reading is definitely easier in toefl, BUT you are flooded with questions. Sometimes, you will get 6 passages instead of 4. And I was the lucky one to get 6 passages but all my friends got 4. Ielts is little bit harder than toefl but just 40 questions and just 3 passage. But remember in ielts you have got variety of questions but don’t worry you can do it, if you practice.

-Listening definitely IELTS, omg ielts listening is VERY easy. You can look question before hearing the recording. SO ielts for listening.

-Writing is also IELTS it’s EASIER than toefl. Like, trust me guys, toefl INTEGRATED writing sucks! you have to listen read and then write your points. In ielts it;s so EASY!!! nothing like that very SIMPLE!!

-Speaking 100 percent IELTS , I personally found so weird to speak to microphone. There are many reasons i mean like how can they score us just hearing our voice? what about gestures and expression. Toefl speaking is NOT good at all.

Conclusion is: IELTS actually test you your real english ability, it will sharpen you so much. You will find tremendous improve in yourself after giving IELTS, toefl is like nothing , you are giving exam in an idiot box, lol.
GOOD LUCK and go for IELTS!!!


hey. i have taken toefl and now i want prepare ielts. In order to i compeared and i sow that ielts is easier than Toel.
1. ielts reading is easy i do not mean the question i mean the text is easy.
2. ielts listening is lower than toefl listening. but there is a bad thing. in ielts exam you will not be given headphone
3. ielts speaking is easy. In order to it is difficult to speak to microphone and you will get anxious. However in ielts speaking you will speak with teacher. In addition in toefl your time will be limited but in ielts you can speak 1 or 2 minutes.http://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gif
4. writing the essay bot of them is same. In fact both of them you will write essay as we know about one topic. here the ielts is easy in order to ielts test takrer wants 250 words but toefl test taker wants 300 words.http://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gif
the second part of the writing toefl is easy for me. in fact i used to do it. but some people say that ielts writing is easy.
at last if a person wants to to take toefl the exam will be 4 hours and in this time the person will be getting tired. however ielts is not like this. the speaking section will be another day and others will be another day. soo take ielts i have taken toefl and i am regret. i did not get good score. i failed because of god damn 4 hours. i lost my consentration and i had headache. LEYLA FROM AZERBAIJAN


This table might help you as well http://secure.vec.bc.ca/toefl-equivalency-table.cfm

Apr 15, 2012

How to Improve Alexa Ranking

I'm not doing anything to improve my Alexa Ranking, in fact I dont really care about it and dont know how on earth Alexa use their own algorithm to rank your blog or website. Until one day I receive this email:

Alexa Drop

ok see I quote again
"the sites need to be under 1,300,000"
, WHAT!!!... adusss ..... I just lost the opportunities for advertising deal. To get a good alexa rank, it is not an instant task. You need to wait for several weeks or even months for that. So to me now better Alexa Ranking is a must. Before this I'm focusing more to be in a good Google PR (PageRank), right now I must do it for both.

Alexa
is a subsidiary company of Amazon.com that collects information about all the websites on the World Wide Web and ranked them on the basis of the traffic they get. It shows statistic data about the websites like traffic rank, website’s reach, page views, search analytics, related links, and many more. So simply by following these steps you can improve your site’s alexa ranking:

  1. Download Alexa toolbar to your system (For each browser you use) and set your website as default home page for your browsers and also encourage your friends to do so.
  2. Write reviews on alexa for your website.
  3. Claim your site on alexa and update its title and description.
  4. Put an alexa rank widget on your website.
  5. Try to bring webmasters and SEOs to your site because most of them have alexa toolbar installed on their system.
  6. Promote your articles on webmaster forums and social networking sites.

Apr 10, 2012

Set a releven keyword for Chitika in WordPress

In Chitika, you must set your own categories / keywords that you want to show ads, not like Google Adsense to display relevant ads automatically.

For example like this, I have 2 posts, one in the Books category and one in category Movies. To display the appropriate ad posts that are in the category Books, Chitika code it like this (here I use the example code for Chitika Related Product Units):


<script type="text/javascript"><!--
ch_client = "YourUserId";
ch_type = "rpu";
ch_noprice = "1";
ch_shufflequeries = 1;
ch_width = 468;
ch_height = 90;
ch_non_contextual = 1;
ch_sid = "NamaChannelAnda";
var ch_queries = new Array( " Books " );
var ch_selected=Math.floor((Math.random()*ch_queries.length));
if ( ch_selected < ch_queries.length ) {
ch_query = ch_queries[ch_selected];
}
//--></script>
<script src="http://scripts.chitika.net/eminimalls/mm.js" type="text/javascript">
</script>


Meanwhile, to display advertisements in accordance with the existing posts in the category "Movies", just change it "Books" in the above code with the "Movies".

Well, every time we have to paste the code into corresponding category, Bother you, ain't it? so how we want to put Chitika code automatically direct fit into the category of each post?

After a few tweaking, I found out how. I'm not good in programming so if there any master programmer or who knows an easier way to do so, please do not laugh on me .. newbieee hehe .. it is also just to show Chitika ads that are relevant in the single post, rather than at home, but can also be used in the archive category.

First, add the following code in the category-template.php file contained in the folder wp-includes:


get_the_category_list_by_jim function () {
$ Categories = get_the_category ();
$ I = 0;
foreach ($ categories as $ category) {
if (0 <$ i)
$ Thelist. = ',';
$ Thelist. = '"'. $ Category-> cat_name. '"';
+ + $ I;
}
;
apply_filters return ('the_category', $ thelist);
}

the_category_by_jim function () {
get_the_category_list_by_jim echo ();
}


Please replace get_the_category_list_by_jim and the_category_by_jim : Grin2: with whatever you want, just do the same with the name of the function that already exists.

Then, in the single.php file (or archive archive.php to category) contained in the folder you use WordPress theme, add the Chitika code is in place you want its ads appear:


<script type="text/javascript"><!--
ch_client = "YourUserId";
ch_type = "rpu";
ch_noprice = "1";
ch_shufflequeries = 1;
ch_width = 468;
ch_height = 90;
ch_non_contextual = 1;
ch_sid = "NamaChannelAnda";
var ch_queries = new Array( <?php the_category_by_jim() ?> );
var ch_selected=Math.floor((Math.random()*ch_queries.length));
if ( ch_selected < ch_queries.length ) {
ch_query = ch_queries[ch_selected];
}
//--></script>
<script src="http://scripts.chitika.net/eminimalls/mm.js" type="text/javascript">
</script>


Remember! Replace the_category_by_jim the name of the function that you have set yourself (if replaced : D ). Done! Now if you look at the page source of your post, its Chitika code on line ch_queries var is in conformity with the category of the post.

How about a post included in multiple categories? Do not worry, all categories are automatically entered So for example your posts in the category Entertainment, Movies, Film and TV, then the results of its Chitika code on the line was already automated ch_queries var like this:


var ch_queries = new Array( "Entertainment", "Movies", "Film", "TV" );


Get Chitika | Premium

Mar 28, 2012

Paypal to Maybank Account in 3 days?


Sign up for PayPal and start accepting credit card payments instantly.


Few years back around 2009 I post something about How to link PayPal to Malaysia Bank Account? , I add my maybank account to my paypal and since then I’m not transferring any fund in paypal to my maybank account. Even though the currency between USD and RM is currently not good ( 1USD=RM3.0012), I just give a shot, then transfer $200 to maybank. Paypal promise me 2-3 working days to complete the transaction. I did the transfer in 22nd March (23rd March local date) and I received it in my account on 28th., so it is about 5 days , and to be exact 3 working days. Not bad, as long as the transaction is success.

This is the easiest way to transfer fund from USD to malaysia, before this we need to use debit card and the transaction fee is expensive. You can see the amount that I received is the same amount between paypal transaction and in my maybank account. For the smaller amount maybe practical, but for large amount never did that before. One more thing if the transfer amount is greater than RM400 it is FOC, if not the transaction fee is USD3. From my experience in receiving fund from US, the best way is using Western Union and Paypal but for international banking check is the worst, you need to wait about 1 month for the check in your mail box then about another one and a half month to clear plus the death fee from maybank (or local bank)
This is email from paypal
paypal to maybank

Date received in my maybank account


My paypal fund transfer to maybank


Mar 27, 2012

CSS display inline-block set height and width

Usually when you want a horizontal list, you need to use float in the CSS code to make it work, with all its drawbacks and sometime it wouldnt give you what you want. I have this problem quite some time, before this I'm using table but when it is involved scripting like php, CSS will help you. However when the horizontal list is image and title or words, the arrangement is not align very well.

This is what you want:


This is when the image float is broken:


image courtesy : http://blog.mozilla.com/



I'm using fix height and width in CSS so that the image float is sorted and arrange perfectly (at least nice to see), and also hidden for overflow image.


.latestphotos {
clear:both;
width:744px;
background:#f6f6f6;
margin:0px 5px 10px 0;
padding:7px 0 7px 4px;
overflow:hidden;
height:100%;
}

.latestphotos ul {
margin:0 0 0 1px;
padding:0;
}

.latestphotos ul li {
margin:0 5px 0px 0px;
padding:0;
display:inline;
list-style:none;
float:left;
width:218px;
height:250px;
}

Mar 7, 2012

Change Address Bar Search Provider in Mozilla FireFox


firefox-address-bar


Change Address Bar Search Provider in Mozilla FireFox



When Firefox performs a search from the Address Bar, it queries the search engine string you have setup within Firefox. If it’s using Yahoo, you can switch to Google. Don’t like Google? Use DuckDuckGo. Here’s how to switch which search engine Firefox searches when you use the address bar to search. I'm installing something related to driver config suddenly there were a lots .ru configuration in my PC, this step is useful to solve the issues in go.mail.ru auto serach in Mozilla FireFox address bar, also use for go.mail.ru removal. .


1. In Firefox type about:config in the address bar and press ENTER.


2. Locate and double-click the entry for keyword.URL

3. Set the value based on which search provider you would like to use for your address bar searches. Here are a few search strings you can use.


Yahoo: http://search.yahoo.com/search?p=


Ask: http://www.ask.com/web?q=


Bing: http://www.bing.com/search?ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=navclient&gfns=1&q=


DuckDuckGo: http://duckduckgo.com/?q=


Google: http://www.google.com/search?&q=


ChaCha: http://www.chacha.com/search/


Feb 20, 2012

QR-Code

qrcode

Feb 15, 2012

XPS M1330 Win XP Installation




XPS M1330

  • Intel Core 2 Duo Mobile @ 2400 MHz T8300 (2.4GHZ)
  • 3GB, DDR2, 667 MHZ
  • LED display with camera
  • Intel Corporation Mobile 965 Express Integrated Graphics Controller
  • Hard Disk : WDC (320 GB)
  • DVD-Rom Drive : MATSHITA DVD+-RW UJ-867S
  • Bluetooth
  • Dell 1505 Wireless N
  • Fingerprint reader





Windows XP walkthrough...



Step 1... You need a version of Windows XP SP2 with built-in SATA drivers... I personally used LastXP (feel free to go find this on a torrent site somewhere, you have the option to install one of your own valid XP keys as part of its setup). (The other way is to put SATA drivers on a USB stick and hit F6 during initial Windows setup...). If this all seems like too much work for you, then you can avoid the whole SATA issue by going into your BIOS, and changing the hard drive mode from SATA to IDE mode.



Step 2... Start the computer with the Windows XP disk in the drive, and hit F12 to load the boot menu.... Pick CD/DVD drive...




Step 3... Windows setup will now boot (blue screens, etc). Here you will have the option to format your harddrive...



Dell likes to partition their drive into 4 partitions... 2 of them hidden partitions... (Boot partition, Recovery partition, OS partition, Mediadirect partition) I deleted them all and started from scratch (I burned the recovery partition to a DVD beforehand anyways, just in case). One of the partitions is for MediaDirect, but this is such a useless program, I would much rather have those 4 GB it eats up...



I'd recommend partitioning the harddrive into 2 partitions, one for the OS, and one for everything else... I chose 40 GB for C: and 160 GB for D: (NTFS of course)



Ok, now windows installs...



Step 4... DRIVERS! DRIVERS! DRIVERS!






FIRST, I'd recommend installing the Intel Mobile Chipset drivers from the Dell website:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=205326



SECOND, I'd recommend installing the latest nVidia drivers v169.09 from here:

http://www.laptopvideo2go.com/forum/...howtopic=16154

Don't forget to download and copy over the modded file nv4_disp.inf BEFORE running the driver installation!



THIRD, you should go download and install the following from the Dell Support website for the m1330 and Windows XP:




Ricoh Memory Card Drivers:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=188377



Broadcom 59XX 10100 Ethernet Controller Driver:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=207055



Broadcom 59XX 10100 Ethernet Controller Utility:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=201425




Creative Labs Laptop Integrated Webcam: (only if you have it of course)

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=235336



Dell Touchpad - Pointing Stick:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=207655



SIGMATEL STAC 92XX C-Major HD Audio:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=235761




Dell Wireless 1505 Draft 802.11n WLAN Mini-Card:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=236819



UPEK Fingerprint Reader: (only if you have it of course)

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=209514



FOURTH, it gets a little tricky now, because Dell hasn't updated their m1330 drivers site very well...




Here are links to working drivers for the following parts:



Dell Wireless 355 Bluetooth Module (Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR): (only if you have it of course)

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=216131



Dell Quickset Drivers v3.4:

http://support.dell.com/support/down...&fileid=222116



FIFTH, download and install the latest Directx runtimes:


http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/d...displaylang=en



VOILA! That's it...you now have a perfectly running XPS m1330 in Windows XP! Of course, this is for my configuration. If you have a different wireless card for example, obviously I'd recommend installing the appropriate driver instead...

This machine flies in Windows XP by they way... I will have to start doing some benchmarking, but a quick test of the harddrive shows my burst speed at over 90 MB/s and an average throughput of over 53 MB /sec!

And in case you were wondering, there are no flagged items in Device Manager...

Drivers for notebook Dell XPS M1330 You can download free drivers for notebook Dell XPS M1330. All required drivers are available for download, including drivers for audio, video, chipset, Wi-Fi or usb.
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